Addressing Harassment of Election Officials: Bibliography

harassment report graphicBelow is the bibliography excerpted from the California Voter Foundation's report, Documenting and Addressing Harassment of Election Officials.

“18 U.S. Code § 875 - Interstate Communications.” LII / Legal Information Institute. Accessed 22 Dec. 2020.

“47 U.S. Code § 230 – Protection for Private Blocking and Screening of Offensive Materials.” LII / Legal Information Institute. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

“2020 CARES Act Grants” U.S. Election Assistance Commission. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

Adona, Natalie, Paul Gronke, Paul Manson, Sarah Cole. “Stewards of Democracy: The Views of American Local Election Officials.” Democracy Fund, 26 Jun. 2019.

Alksnis, Christine, et al. “Workforce Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap: Is ‘Women’s’ Work Valued as Highly as ‘Men’s’?” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 38, no. 6, June 2008, pp. 1416–41.

Allott, Daniel. “The Time Has Come for Nonpartisan State Election Leadership.” The Hill, 4 Apr. 2021.

Bauer, Bob and Ben Ginsburg. “State Election Officials Are Under Attack. We Will Defend Them.” New York Times, 4 Jun. 2021.

“Benson Speaks out about Protest at Home.” WXYZ-TV Detroit., Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

“California Election Funding and Governance Proposal.” California Voter Foundation, 1 Aug. 2016.

“California Law Code.” California Legislative Information. Accessed 22 Dec. 2020.

“Certificate in Election Administration.” Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

“Community Standards.” Facebook. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

Cruz-Orduña, Karen. “Head of San Luis Obispo elections responds to ‘Inexcusable racial slur’ during voting debate.”, 5 May 2021.

“CTCL Launches Election Infrastructure Initiative.” Center for Tech and Civic Life, 6 May 2021.

“CTCL Receives $250M Contribution to Support Critical Work of Election Officials.” Center for Tech and Civic Life, 1 Sept. 2020.

Derron, Carner. “Aspen Institute Launches Commission on Information Disorder to Develop Actionable Public-Private Responses to the Disinformation Crisis.” The Aspen Institute, 13 Jan. 2021.

Donovan, Joan. "The Media Manipulation Casebook." Harvard Shorenstein Center.

Durkee, Alison. “Dominion Voting Sues Sidney Powell For Defamation Over Election Conspiracy—And Others May Be Next.” Forbes, 8 Jan. 2021.

“Elections Infrastructure Information Sharing and Analysis Center.” Center for Internet Security. Accessed 5 May 2021.

“Election Administration at State and Local Levels.” National Conference of State Legislatures, 3 Feb. 2020.

“Election Interference: Ensuring Law Enforcement Is Equipped to Target Those Seeking to Do Harm.” United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 12 Jun. 2018.

The Elections Group. “Running Elections Without Fear: Ensuring Physical Safety for Election Personnel.” The Elections Group, May 2021.

The Elections Group, Brightlines, Security Positive. “Defending Democracy: Protecting Election Officials from Digital Threats.” The Elections Group, April 2021.

Goodykoontz, Emily. “Election officials faced ‘unprecedented harassment’ during Anchorage mayor’s runoff, report says.”Anchorage Daily News, 26 May 2021.

“Graduate Certificates - Department of Political Science.” College of Liberal Arts - Auburn University. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

Gronke, Paul, Paul Manson, Jay Lee. “The Democracy Fund/Reed College Survey of Local Election Officials.” Early Voting Information Center. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

Hale, Kathleen, Robert Montjoy, Mitchell Brown. Administering Elections: How American Elections Work, 2015.

Hall, Thad E. "Primer on the US Election System." International Foundation for Electoral Systems, 2012.

Higgins, Tucker. “Threats against members of Congress have more than doubled this year, Capitol Police says.” CNBC, 7 May 2021.

“Home Page.” Election Center: The National Association of Election Officials. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

“Home Page.” Election Reformer’s Network. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

“How Do I Request a Verified Badge on Facebook?” Facebook Help Center. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

Jankowicz, Nina, Jillian Hunchak, Alexandra Pavliuc, et al. “Malign Creativity: How Gender, Sex, and Lies Are Weaponized Against Women Online.” Wilson Center, Jan. 2021.

Kalmbacher, Colin. “Legal Experts Say Dominion’s Defamation Lawsuit Against Sidney Powell Appears to Be ‘Extremely Strong’: ‘It Will Be a Hell of a Ride.’” MSN, 8 Jan. 2021.

Kennedy, Merrit, Bill Chappell. “Dominion Voting Systems Files $1.6 Billion Defamation Lawsuit Against Fox News.” NPR.Org, 26 Mar. 2021.

Kornbluh, Karen, and Ellen P. Goodman. “Three Steps to Help Treat America’s Debilitating Information Disorder.” Washington Post, 13 Jan. 2021.

Lahut, Jake. “Georgia’s Republican Secretary of State and His Wife Received Texts Telling Them They Deserve ‘to Face a Firing Squad’ as Trump Escalated His Attacks on Election Results.” Business Insider, 19 Nov. 2020.

Lenhart, Amanda, Michele Ybarra, Kathryn Zickuhr, and Myeshia Price-Feeney. “Online Harassment, Digital Abuse, and Cyberstalking in America.” Data & Society, 21 Nov. 2016.

Levine, David. “How to Retain Election Officials to Secure Future Elections.” Alliance for Securing Democracy, accessed 6 Jun. 2021.

“The Long Fuse: Misinformation and the 2020 Election.” The Election Integrity Partnership, Jan. 2021.

Manpearl, Eric. “Securing U.S. Election Systems: Designating U.S. Election Systems as Critical Infrastructure and Instituting Election Security Reforms Notes.” Boston University Journal of Science and Technology Law, vol. 24, no. 1, 2018, p. [i]-192.

Maple, Caitlin. “Investing in California’s Democracy: Building a Partnership for Performance.” California Forward, May 2016.

Moretti, Mindy. “In Focus This Week: Being Online Isn’t Enough.” Electionline Weekly, 15 Apr. 2021.

Moynihan, Donald P., and Carol L. Silva. “The Administrators of Democracy: A Research Note on Local Election Officials.” Public Administration Review, vol. 68, no. 5, 2008, pp. 816–27. Wiley Online Library,

Myers, John. “Essential Politics: California’s election official exodus.” The Los Angeles Times, 12 Apr. 2021.

“NASS Members.” National Association of Secretaries of State. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

Nava, Pedro, et al. “California Election Infrastructure: Making a Good System Better.” Little Hoover Commission, Apr. 2021.

Orey, Rachel, Matthew Weil. “Improving the Voting Experience After 2020.” Bipartisan Policy Center, 7 Apr. 2021.

Perez, Sarah. “Twitter to Launch a Revamped Verification System with Publicly Documented Guidelines.” TechCrunch, 8 Jun. 2020.

“Professional Education Program.” Election Center: The National Association of Election Officials. Accessed 25 Apr. 2021.

“Rioters Chanted “Hang Mike Pence” at Capitol as Pence Fled with Family Seconds before.” CNN Video. 6 Jan. 2021.

“Senate Impeachment Trial Day 2, Part 2.” C-SPAN.Org, 10 Feb. 2021.

“Senators Shown Security Video Footage of Vice President Pence’s Evacuation During Capitol Attack” C-SPAN.Org, 10 Feb. 2021.

“State House Passes Bill to Exempt Certain Election Security Information from Public Records Disclosure.” The Spokesman-Review, 25 Feb. 2021.

“Statement from Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson Concerning Threats against Her and Her Family.” Michigan Secretary of State, 6 Dec. 2020.,4670,7-127-93094-546741--,00.html.

Solove, Daniel. Privacy and Security Academy: Privacy Torts and the Media in the US, 2018.

Supreme Court Case. Elonis v. United States, 575 U.S. 2015.

“U.S. Election Assistance Commission.” EAC. Accessed 5 May 2021.

“Verifying Elections: Towards Good Practices Amid Social Media-Facilitated Misinformation.” Election Standards at The Carter Center, 2019.

Walljasper, Matt. “Gabriel Sterling on Death Threats, the Dark Side, and America’s Redemptive Potential.” Atlanta Magazine, 8 Feb. 2021.

Wick, Julia. “Column: A female mayor denounces the harassment she receives. Hours later, a man is arrested at her office.” The Los Angeles Times, 19 Jan. 2020.

Wines, Michael. “Here Are the Threats Terrorizing Election Workers.” The New York Times, 3 Dec. 2020.